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Saints' Discussion Forums  |  Forums  |  Catholic General Discussion  |  Topic: Holy Roman Empire 0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic. « previous next »
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eschator83
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« Reply #48 on: July 31, 2021, 09:18:31 AM »

As I said, he is nasty, I'll go further and add that he's extensively and excessively critical of the church.  It is hard to imagine why he was allowed to teach at Notre Dame, and why his books are still assigned as texts.  But he has a lot of data which is not otherwise readily available.  I think he's in pretty much the same category as Bokenkotter and Durant.  Durant reportedly converted to Catholicism at the end of his life, but it is hard for me to imagine given his outspoken atheism and apparent communism.  O'Brien is much more clear and readable than the others.
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CyrilSebastian
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« Reply #49 on: July 31, 2021, 05:17:41 PM »

eschator83, I have not heard of the authors O'Brien, Bokenkotter and Durant.
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CyrilSebastian
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« Reply #50 on: September 11, 2021, 05:53:14 PM »

Henry III was Holy Roman Emperor from 1046 until 1086.   
In 1046 he ended the papal schism and freed the Vatican from dependence on the Roman nobility.
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CyrilSebastian
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« Reply #51 on: September 30, 2021, 06:01:14 PM »

Louis IV reigned as Holy Roman Emperor from 1328 to 1347.   
In January 1328, Louis entered Rome and had himself crowned emperor by the senator   
Sciarra Colonna, called captain of the Roman people.
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CyrilSebastian
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« Reply #52 on: December 23, 2021, 03:15:17 PM »

Charlemagne was King of the Franks.   
Pope Leo III crowned Charlemagne Emperor of the Romans on Christmas Day December 25, 800 in St. Peter's Basilica in Rome.
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CyrilSebastian
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« Reply #53 on: January 18, 2022, 01:46:22 PM »

It was the future Holy Roman Emperor Ferdinand I who concluded the Peace of Augsburg in 1555   
that guaranteed Protestants their rights and freedom of worship.
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CyrilSebastian
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« Reply #54 on: February 01, 2022, 02:45:32 PM »

Since a woman could not be elected Holy Roman Empress, Archduchess Maria Theresa of Austria   
wanted to secure the imperial office for her husband. Francis was elected Holy Roman Emperor.
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CyrilSebastian
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« Reply #55 on: June 20, 2022, 05:53:00 PM »

Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I reigned from 1658 to 1705.   
In 1663 the imperial diet entered the last stage of its existence. It became a body permanently in session at Regensburg.
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CyrilSebastian
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« Reply #56 on: July 16, 2022, 05:39:39 PM »

Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I claimed headship of the Order of the Golden Fleece.   
The headship had hitherto belonged to the Spanish sovereign.   
Leopold began investigating new knights even before King Charles II of Spain's demise.
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eschator83
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« Reply #57 on: July 25, 2022, 08:16:26 PM »

Many thanks for this entry and its motivating me to several hours of web searching the Golden Fleece Order and the Burgandy history in general.  The Order exists today in two distinct and separate branches, Spanish and Austrian, of which the Spanish has claimed the most knights (1200), the greatest wealth, culture, and prestige, and yet abandoned its role as a Catholic order when Joseph Bonaparte, elder brother of Napoleon, began admitting protestants as Knights.
Tile fragments from the Phinsenhof palace, one of many used by Fleece Grand Masters, indicate that two Holy Roman Emperors were Knights of the order, Maximillian of Austria and Charles V of Germany.
I'm tempted to write more, but web searches can be chaotic, especially trying to reconcile apparent discrepancies, and I wonder if these comments seem accurate.
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CyrilSebastian
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« Reply #58 on: July 26, 2022, 05:30:22 PM »

eschator83, The comments seem accurate. Please write more.
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eschator83
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« Reply #59 on: August 05, 2022, 08:52:06 AM »

Catholic Orders seem generally to have shared focus on several aspects of life, religious, military, merit, and culture.  The early religious orders seemed primarily to form among hermits for security, education, and discipline.  The first military and religious order was reportedly the Knights Templar, founded in 1118 to protect Catholic colonies in Outremer, Iberian Peninsula, and Eastern Europe.  But powerful individual and groups of knights emerged throughout Europe as the Roman armies were defeated by wave after wave of pagan invaders in the 4th century.  The model of St George as well as the legendary (?) Knights of the Round Table were popular and hopeful images.  Although cities built under Roman rule were often undefended and abandoned, monasteries and castles of local rulers were frequently fortified and defended.  Other early orders include Knights Hospitaller, Teutonic Knights, Knights of St James.  I noticed about 40 orders, although approximately half reportedly did not have official support from Church officials and of regional royalty.
English Orders of Knights which survive today include Order of the Garter (1349), Order of the Thistle (1354 Scotland), Order of the Bath (1399), although all have been Protestantised.
Six French Orders were suppressed by the Revolution.  Pontifical Orders continue, although military service is not required of knights.
See web 2013 The Splendor of Burgundy Conference on French absorption of Burgundian empire but claims by Spain and Austria of Knights of Burgundy.
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